Child Development - School Age Children
A Dramatic Play Area is a region systematized and set aside to motivate dramatic play among children. In establishing a dramatic play area, considerable factors should be put into play like placing objects and items, which relate to particular things or a thing in the designated area. In addition, the children are let to explore their fantasies without limitations. A dramatic paly area is significant in enabling children with social development since it encourages the aspect of social cooperation. Consequently, when children play as a unit they develop and nurture skills on sharing, learning to wait their turn, including how to request for materials they need to use. Moreover, it enhances language skills. Building the proper means of requesting for an item may take a long time of practice, however, if this language is enhanced through provider in an event or activity like dramatic play, then the skills are likely to be developed earlier and the children will put them into use on their own. In addition, dramatic paly promote hands-on experience with the actual world materials. Children are usually limited in the total things they can utilize. This experience may encourage children to explore their anxieties and making meaning to their surrounding world. This paper is a description of the inclusive of setting up a dramatic play area and arrangement techniques to attract the age group of 8-10 years (McGee 77).
Arranging the dramatic play area
To endorse literacy learning, considerably dramatic play area may be synchronized with the social studies or science theme that is being studied. Materials for reading and writing are provided to support the play theme, and during play children read, write, speak, and listen to one another. This is through using literacy in functional ways. In establishing a dramatic play area it is important to consider the following aspects are present in order to encourage the children. Designing a veterinarian office that will go along with an animal theme with a concentration on pets is a significant element. Pests are of great attraction to children and consequently will draw their attention to social, collaborative, and interactive nature of literacy development. The dramatic area is designed with a waiting room and chairs; a table filed with magazines, books and pamphlets regarding pet care; posters about pets; office hour’s notices; a No Smoking sign; and a sign advertising visitors to “check in with the nurse when arriving.” A nurse’s desk holds patient forms on clipboards, a telephone, an address, and telephone book. In addition, appointment cards, a calendar, and a computer for recording appointments and patient records. Offices contain patient folder, prescription pads, white coats, masks, gloves, cotton swaps, a toy doctor`s kit, and staffed animal to serve as patients.
The students are to be left to use the various materials in the veterinarian`s office, for example through reminding the children to read to pets in waiting areas or to fill out forms with prescriptions or appointment times or with the information about an animal`s condition and treatment. In addition to giving directions, I will model behaviors by participating in play with the children when the materials are first introduced.
Teamwork in meeting individual children needs
Every child is special and requires certain attention. Different kinds and levels of disability will effect a child`s degree of experience and success. Parents and therapists can give the best information and advice about working with specific children. However, the general tips that follow offer guidance in helping children with different kinds of special needs increase their dramatic play skills. For instance, children having visual impairments during dramatic plays they apply observations of the world to pretend scenarios. When a child lacks the ability to observe, dramatic play is less likely be part of her play routine. Visually impaired child needs a lot of help and encouragement to become comfortable and adept at dramatic play. Helping these children includes; familiarizing the child with the dramatic play area. Let her examine the play props and try to guess their identities. Explain the location of each object in the area. Discuss what each object is used for, and various features of the item: “this is a pet. It has legs that support it. Feel for the legs and pull them. Feel the head and make the child also feel them.” A toy animal on the table, for example should have distinct sections that the child can easily identify. Once the play begins, ask the other children to explain the plot to the visually impaired child: “We are playing store. Here is the cash register. You pay here.” Stay nearby, and, if necessary, explain what to do: “Hold out your cup so that Jeff can pour you a drink.” Remind nondisabled peers to use the child`s name and make sure they have the child`s attention before speaking. Finally, encourage children to explain what is going on as the action develops and to use labels for objects like cup, hat- rather than pronouns like this and it (Wilson 71).
Children with hearing impairments: listening is an effort for hearing-impaired children, which means they may avoid highly verbal activities like socio-dramatic play. A child may choose to engage in dramatic play by playing parent to a baby doll, for example, and may even play a alongside others. But a hearing impaired child will usually need help in becoming a part 0f group socio-dramatic play. Helping this child depends on his language abilities, through suggesting considerable ways to engage in group play themes. This may range from reviewing socially appropriate phrases, such as, “May I play, too?” to demonstrating a polite tap on the shoulder to get the attention of a group member. If the child`s verbal skills are limited, I will look for non-verbal rules the child can assume, such as a sleeping baby, an animal in a zoo, or a silent mail sorter in the post office. I will encourage the child`s nondisabled peers to create roles which require more action than talk.
Children with physical impairment have limited ability to interact with their environment. As a result, they bring fewer experiences to dramatic play. Because of their limited mobility, they may not feel as able to take part in group situations as other children. Adapting a dramatic-play area that it is safer and more comfortable for a physically impaired child is a vital step. Furniture that is heavy and stable will give the child something to lean on without falling. Weigh down movable toys like wagons and doll carriages so they will be less likely to tip over if the child pushes them. Allow for wide aisles between furniture and avoid area rugs. If the child uses a mechanical aid like a wheelchair, walker, cane, or crutches, discuss safety rules such as not laying crutches on the floor where others can trip over them. Nondisabled children may tend to assign the child secondary roles. While minor roles may be appropriate as the child is getting used to group socio-dramatic play. Finally the family issues among children can be handled through directive measures like using of models that can draw their attention and be much interesting.
Workshop with parents
“Literacy development and the school-age child” the steps involved in establishing literacy development include: creating the right space. First consider an efficient location that will ensure the location is ideal. The best location for a dramatic play area would be where children are free to make sound effects as they take their various roles. The area should be away from the quieter areas. This could prevent the various sounds and activities that children make involving noise. The second step is choosing props and accessories. The richness of children`s play will depend not only on basic furnishings and children`s imaginations, but also on accessory objects. However, there is a fine line between giving children everything they need and allowing them to plan, gather, and improvise-to use their own creative abilities. With young children who depend heavily on props to direct their play themes, you may want to guide play by providing a few well chosen, realistic props. The time frame will be two hour for this first step (Wilson 67).
Setting an ideal set-up for dramatic play is a step worthy to be discussed in the workshop. This is based on the environment where learning among children on the props is to take place. This is an important aspect because the parents need to comprehend the significance of the practice among children. The area for setting up the dramatic play should be spacious and readily accessible by students. The forth step that is of great consideration in the workshop denotes the props and tips that are applied in the dramatic plays among children. I will take 1 hour to explore the ideal set-up for the parents and 30min to endorse the importance of literacy development and the school-age child.
Exploring the various children differences is worthy to parents, and how they should handle the. For instance, Children with mental retardation play with a level consistent to their age. A four year old with a mental age of 30 months will play like a two and half year old. Mentally retard children also tend to be rigid in their play. That is, repeating the same roles over and over. They depend heavily on props and may not think of sweeping, for example, if a broom is not present. They tend to use props only for their designated purpose and rarely substitute one prop for another. Consequently, it is hard for a child who is functioning at a lower, less-imaginative level to join in play of same-age peers. However, the child can be helped through involving a dramatic play situation that is above the child`s level, set up a second dramatic play setting nearby, perhaps by acting as a play partner to the child. It is important for a teacher to emphasize on the use of modeling to encourage the child to try different play themes from those she usually choses. In addition, it is important to draw the child`s attention to peers using props in imaginative ways, and model substituting one prop for another.
Consequently, change is difficult for a mentally retarded child. It is important to alert the child five to ten minutes before the end of playtime that she will momentarily need to clean up and put away play props. If the child has been playing with a group, give her a specific job to do during cleanup, such as putting away the spoons.
Music and Movement for school age children
Music is an important aspect that certainly draws the attention of children. Including music in dramatic play settings will ensure children are motivated and drawn. The issue of attention is obtained easily with introduction of pieces of music along the dramatic play. However for children to actively participate some of their best songs must be incorporated in the setting. Children are mainly encouraged by music and thus significant establishment of it in the dramatic play will ensure that they develop their literacy skills. This is through at times singing through the lines. The teacher should help the children learn the composition of the song by singing along with them and even writing down the lines. The teacher should be able to accompany the music with desirable music instruments that give the children the ability to learn the music. Moreover, music sets the basis of transition of language skills. Movements in music are of great impact towards the child`s literacy development (Hereford and 65).
Teaching a new teacher on school age children
Consequently training a new teacher on handling school, age I would introduce him to the program of child literacy development through dramatic play. I would emphasize size the various differences that exist among children during learning and how to handle them. For instance, Children with behavior disturbances commonly display one of three types of extreme behavior: withdrawal, aggression, or hyperactivity. Any of these behaviors can interfere with socio-dramatic play. Helping theses type of children with mental retardation requires the teacher to start simple. Too much stimulation can lead to increased extremes in behavior. You might start as the child`s play partner, gradually try to interest one or two other children in joining the play, and then step out. Children who are withdrawn need lots of time to become comfortable with a dramatic-play activity. Let the child begin by watching from outside the area, and then by standing among the others as they play. Set up a second dramatic-play area next to the ongoing one that is related but different. Pairing children who are aggressive with more mature understanding children ensures acquisition of learning skills among children. Reviewing the rules of the dramatic play area with the child, helping her find a role to play and props to use: “Steve, why don`t you sweep the floor of your house with this broom?” When signs of aggression do appear, help the child realize that she is upset, and talk about positive ways to handle these feelings. Offer lots of reinforcement when the child behaves well.
Children who are hyperactive may have difficulty maintaining the attention needed for participating in peers extended play themes. Play alongside the child if this helps her pay attention longer. Suggest new and expand plot ideas when the child becomes restless. Transitions can be stressful for children with behavior problems. It is important to alert the children close to cleanup time so that they can prepare for a change in activity, then stay close to be of help.