Comparative Analysis Of Pipe Borne Water And Other Sources Of Water Within Enugu Metropolis For Human Consumption
Comparative examination of three main sources of water supply in Independence layout Enugu was carried out with a view to determine their levels of contamination of bacteria. The sources of water examined are tap water, well water and stream water. The pour plate method was used to examine the water samples. Bacteria isolated from the water samples include coliforms especially Escherichia coli. Stream water and well water were found to contain bacterial isolates unlike the tap water that has none.
TABLE OF CONTENT CERTIFICATION-i
TABLE OF CONTENT-V
1.0 Chapter one-7
1.1 Aims and objectives-10
1.2 Statement of problem-10
1.3 Significant of study-11
2.0 Chapter two-12
2.1 Industrial pollution-13
2.2 Domestic pollution-14
2.3 Agriculture pollution-14
2.4 Environmental pollution-14
2.5 Underground water-14
2.6 Well water-15
2.7 Pipe borne water-15
2.8 Surface water-19
2.9 Portable water-19
2.10 Indicator organisms-21
2.11 Water analysis-22
2.12 Microbiological analysis-23
3.0 Chapter three-24
3.1 Sample collection-24
3.2 Analysis of sample-24
3.3 Sterilization of materials-25
4.0 Chapter four-26
5.0 Chapter five-30
Following the theory of creation, it is clear that water is as old as man. From time immemorial, man has restored to the use of this unique commodity for domestic and other purposes. Most of our water supplies are from surface water which include: rivers, streams, lakes, oceans and seas and there water bodies are likely to be polluted with domestic and Industrial as well as agriculture waste, As populations increase, the problem become more serious and as such, water can endanger the health and life of human beings because when polluted by fecal materials it becomes potential carrier of pathogenic organism (Carpenter, 1977). Water, is of course, absolutely essential to life, not only human life but all life, animal and vegetable. Most of the biochemical reaction that occur in metabolism and growth of living cells involved water, and all take places in water. (Camp et al,1974).
Man uses water not only for drinking purposes but also for bathing, washing, laundering, heating, air conditioning, agriculture, stock raising and gardens, Industrial processes and cooling water power and steam power, fire protection, fishing, swimming and wildlife propagation and navigation. Natural water contain not only then natural flora but also microorganisms from soil and possible from animals or sewage. Surface waters in streams or pools and stored waters in lakes and large ponds vary considerably in microbial content. (frazier, 1978) water is broadly divided into three types viz., surface water which include: streams, rivers, lakes seas, and oceans (Kelman et al, 1957). The ground water, well, borehole, many people have defined the ground water in different ways: groundwater is non saturated water that occurs where all pores in the soil or rock counting materials are saturated (pelzer et al, 1992). The atmospheric water, which include rainfalls. All water bodies consist of a variety of bacterial and other microorganisms like the Algaes, fungi, which inhabit these natural water bodies. Some of these microorganisms are indigenous to thus natural water while others are transient, entering the water from external environment (Pelezar and Reg, 1997).
The generality of bacteria are mostly commonly found ordinarily in fresh water some of which include: pseudomonas, Archaebacteria, and vibrio these are gram negative, the gram-positive bacterial which are found in water include: micrococcus Archaebacteria and actinomycetes (Gebharal, 1975). Tap water, as one of the water sources is mostly used domestically, it is observed that tap change sometime the water tap will be clear this calls for load, in order to be sure of its portability (Bonde, 1977). The increase in drinking water from different sources especially in Enugu state has made necessary to investigate the microbial content of water. Water is a potential carried of pathogenic organisms that can endanger human life. Most of drinking water sources are often contaminated with different pollutants like faeces, animal and plant wastes, making such water unfit for drinking if not treated. The pollution of water with pathogenic organisms and other pollutants can only be detected by carrying out microbiological assessment of such water. Most human disease such as typhoid paratyphoid cholera, amoebiasis, Trichinosis, gastroenteritis, salmonella shigellosis, diphtheria, giada, dracunculus etc are known to be water borne disease. (Ewington et al, 1971).
Water borne disease are those disease which have water as their vehicle of transmission these disease are capable of destroying a whole community if not checked. Therefore, the quickest ways to prevent outbreak of these disease and to determine the portability of such water sources is to determine the microbial load or content if the microbial content is not within acceptable limit, such water sources should be condemned immediately (Fair et al, 1970).
1.1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
I. To find out if well, stream, Tap water contains pathogens.
II. To help the public to know the danger of drinking these water without adequate treatment.
III. To compare the microbial load of the water source and advice on safer source of water .
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
These source of water are contaminated through one way or the other
(i) The short falls in the distribution of treated pipe borne water leads people to resort to alternative source of water which may be unfit for human consumption.
(ii) Tap water can be polluted through leakage/improper plumbing.
(iii) Well water is contaminated as a result of running off into it, especially shallow well.
(iv) Streams can be contaminated through waste from industries, leaves, dust, and rain run often.
1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1) The study will advice on water meet the standard quality required for any particular purpose
2) Also advice the eswc on quality of their product. For future nature modification of treatment methods
Fewer sample were worked on because of lack of fund, the survey is however limited to the bacteria flora of waters, and not all organisms even on bacterial flora specification, the number of sample culture were limited by lack of funds and culture media is expensive.