Design Of Sun Tracker For A Pv System
This project involves a design of sun tracker for PV system.
The circuit of the sun tracker is designed in such a way that it follows the track of the sun as it travel in the sky. The LDR are connected to non-inverter input of the operational amplifier whose reference voltage resistor R1 and R2 is 10Ω each. At the output of the operational amplifier are NPN and PNP transistor. These transistors are used to drive the DC motor in forward and backward directions which corresponds to the direction of the sun in the sky. The motor is switch through a relay.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study-1
1.2 Statement of the Problem--1
1.3 Aims and Objectives-2
1.4 Solar Time-2
1.5 Scope of the Project--3
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.3 Solar Panels-6
2.4 Types of Solar Panel-7
2.5 Sun Tracker-9
2.6 Types of Sun Tracker-10
2.7 Physics related theory--11
2.8 Operational Amplifier-12
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM DESIGN
3.2 General Block Design-14
3.3 Units design of Sun Tracker-15
3.4 The Sensor System-16
3.5 The Linear actuator System and the Motor Controller System--17
3.6 The Battery Storage System and the Controller-18
3.7 The Microcontroller system and the Developed flowchart-19
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
A solar tracker is a device for orienting a photovoltaic array solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. The sun’s position in the sky varies both with the seasons (elevation) and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun, so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position, at the cost of additional system complexity. There are many types of solar trackers, of varying costs, sophistication and performance. One well-known type of solar tracker is the heliostat, a movable mirror that reflects the moving sun to a fixed location. (Pang 2010). But many other approaches are used as well non-concentrating applications require less accuracy, and many work without any tracking at all. However, tracking can substantially improve both the amount of total power produced by a system and that produced during critical system demand periods (typically late afternoon in hot climates). The use of trackers in non-concentrating applications is usually an engineering decision based on economics. Compared to photo voltaic, trackers can be inexpensive. This makes theme especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency (and thus expensive) panels.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
While the output of solar cells depends on the intensity of sunlight and the angle of incidence, it means to get maximum efficiency; the solar panels must remain in front of sun during the whole day. But due to rotation of earth those panels can’t maintain their position always in front of sun. This problem results in decrease of their efficiency. Thus to get a constant output, an automated system is required which should be capable to constantly rotate the solar panel. The Solar Tracking System is made as a prototype to solve the problem, mentioned above. It is completely automatic and keeps the panel in front of sun where we get the maximum output.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The major aim of this project work is to design a sun tracker that follows through the sun as it moves in the sky.The basic target of this project is to provide the means of solving some existing problems in real life activities of man in order to create simplicity in human’s life. The objective involve, providing simple means of controlling the movement of a device that would follow the sun as it move in the sky. This project is very important in the sense that can be used in application like solar dryer and similar one’s that needs the presence. The circuit uses very simple design approach which makes the work very effective in its operation and of course, cost effective. The entire components used in this design circuit are commonly available.
1.4 SOLAR TIME
Solar time (t s) is based on the 24 hour clock, with 1200h as solar noon (the time that the Sun is exactly due south-in northern hemisphere, or due north-in the southern hemisphere). The concept of solar time is used in predicting the direction of sun-rays relative to a point on the Earth. Solar time is location (longitude) dependent and is generally different from local clock time (LCT), which is defined by politically defined time zones and other approximations. The conversion between solar time and local clock time requires knowledge of the location, the day of the year, and the local standards to which local clocks are set.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK
This project, design of a sun tracker for PV system would be very significant to the people due to its functions. In the first place the project would be very important in providing means of solving the problems of drying substances using sun. It would also help by saving people from doing the manual work of changing the directions of dryers. Another significance of this work is that it is very cheap in such a way that almost everybody can afford to get it.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scope of this project, design of sun tracker is basically the design of the different parts of the circuit, it involves; design work to verify the workability and making any required adjustment.