Economic Analysis Of Millet-Based Cropping Systems
This study examined the economics of millet-based cropping systems in Bindawa and Charanchi LGAS, Katsina state. The specific objectives were to identify and describe the millet-based cropping systems; determine the inputs and output levels; determine the production functions; determine the resource use efficiencies; determine the costs and returns; and identify and describe the constraints associated with millet-farmers. Primary data were collected for the study, based on the 2010 cropping season using structured questionnaire administered on 160 millet-based farmers. The analytical tools used were the descriptive statistics, production function analysis and farm budget technique. The results of the study showed that the commonest millet-based cropping systems in the study areas were millet/sorghum (26.25%) and millet/sorghum/groundnut (25.00%). For inputs used, millet/sorghum/groundnut had the highest amount of land allocation of 82.3 hectares and sole millet had the least of 44.99 hectares. For seed, 26.64 GEW, 115.78 GEW, 149.61 GEW, 65.46 GEW were used for millet/sorghum, millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea, millet/sorghum/groundnut, millet/sorghum/cowpea, respectively and 39 kg was used for sole millet. For labour, 856 man-hours, 1163 man-hours, 882 man-hours, 866 man-hours and 675 man-hours were used for millet/sorghum, millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea, millet/sorghum/groundnut, millet/sorghum/ cowpea and sole millet, respectively. For fertilizer, 299 kg, 366 kg, 276 kg, 217 kg and 216 kg wereused for millet/sorghum, millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea, millet/sorghum/groundnut, millet/ sorghum/cowpea and sole millet, respectively. For pesticides, 7.3 litres/ha and 7.2 litres/ha were used for millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea and millet/sorghum/cowpea, respectively. The mean yield of millet cropping systems showed that 1939.14 GEW/ha, 5910.54 GEW/ha, 5645.04GEW/ha, 2786.28 GEW/ha and 1902.3 kg/ha were obtained for millet/sorghum, millet/sorghum/ groundnut/cowpea, millet/sorghum/groundnut, millet/sorghum/cowpea and sole millet, respectively. The results of the production function analysis showed that for millet/sorghum, the coefficients of farm size (P≤0.05), seed (P≤0.1) and fertilizer (P≤0.1) were positive and significant. For millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea, the coefficients of farm size, labour and pesticide were positive and significant (P≤0.01 each). For millet/sorghum/groundnut, farm size (P≤0.01), labour (P≤0.05) and fertilizer (P≤0.01) were positive and significant. For millet/sorghum/cowpea, farm size (P≤0.05), seed (P≤0.01), labour (P≤0.05) and pesticide (P≤0.1) were positive and significant. For sole millet, only seed (P≤0.1) was positive and significant. The resource use efficiencies for the millet cropping systems showed that for millet/sorghum, farm size and seeds were under-utilized, but labour and fertilizer were over-utilized. For millet/sorghum/groundnut/cowpea, farm size was under-utilized but seeds, labour, fertilizer and pesticide were over-utilized. For millet/sorghum/groundnut, farm size, labour and fertilizer were under-utilised, but seed was over-utilised. For millet/sorghum/cowpea, farm size was under-utilized but seed, labour and fertilizer were over-utilized. For sole millet, farm size and seed were under-utilized but labour and fertilizer were over-utilized. The results of costs and returns analysis showed that the millet-based cropping systems were profitable, with gross margins per hectare of N5,713.85, N189,010.40, N42,744.3, N196,077.60 and N2,026.01 for millet / sorghum, millet / sorghum / groundnut/cowpea, millet / sorghum / groundnut, millet / sorghum / cowpea and sole millet, respectively. The average rates of return were 1.39, 9.28, 3.54, 12.63 and 1.17 for millet / sorghum, millet / sorghum / groundnut / cowpea, millet / sorghum / groundnut, millet / sorghum / cowpea and sole millet, respectively. The most vii important constraint in the millet cropping systems was inadequate fertilizer. Some of the recommendations made include advising farmers to use of optimal levels of inputs.