Effects of Globalization on Culture
According to Spradley & McCurdy (2006), globalization has made people to interact, connect, and communicate in better and improved ways. The effects of globalization on non-western culture are both positive and negative. Globalization does not affect everyone in equal measures. Different cultures are affected differently by globalization depending on activities and social-economic practices.
Circumstances prior to globalization
In Africa, the effects globalization has been deeply felt. One such a country that has witnessed globalization is Zimbabwe where women are more involved in farming than men are. This phenomenon is reflected in most African countries. Farming and agriculture forms the backbone of African economy. Nonetheless, in most places, farming practiced as scale with women being more involved in small scale entrepreneurship. Muyale-Manenji (2010) says that globalization has allowed African women to market their produces and even access cheap farm inputs from abroad because of trade liberalization.
Cause of the influence
Trade liberalization was established as a strategic measure both by the regional and international trade partners to enhance trade in Africa. Before liberalization emerged, trade was controlled by the state with both import and export being regulated. The state would tax imports to curb unlimited importation of goods so as to preserve the local industries. Therefore, globalization came into effects to boost economic growth and help African countries to repay huge foreign debts. However, the effects have been more negative than positive (Muyale-Manenji, 2010).
Type of influence and reaction to change
Although the changes were influenced with good intentions, the effects have not been what were expected. In Zimbabwe, the women who were involved in farming had to resort to other means that they fend for themselves. Some moved to urban areas causing overpopulation and increase in the slum dwellings. Others opted to be involved in the cross border trade. The social and cultural dynamic was as a result affected. Women abandoned their role as parents because trade occupied most of their time.
As a result, children suffered the most as they did not have people to take care of them and incidences of rape on children increased. The women engaged freely in adultery causing increase in HIV/Aids in Africa; these behaviors had far reaching consequences. Zimbabweans have been ignored globalization and therefore the reaction has been negative. This has further affected the economy negatively considering that it is facing the worst inflation globally (Muyale-Manenji, 2010). There is a need to promote modern technology so that Zimbabweans can appreciate and embrace change.
Circumstances prior and after to globalization
The Republic of Kenya is another non-western culture that has been influenced both positively and negatively by the globalization. In the early 1960, the Kenyan society faced poverty, lacked medical facilities, and education institution were inadequate. However, at the start of 21st century tremendous changes happened in the ICT sector transforming business and education. The emergence of modern technology has greatly been felt in Kenya, especially with the coming of mobile phone technology. Mobile phones have transformed banking industry in East Africa with millions of Kenyans enjoying mobile banking today (popularly known as M-pesa) (Daniels, 2010). This has allowed business to move to a new level and education sector has also been boosted majorly.
Surprisingly, before mobile banking was initiated in Kenya in 2004, banking was only left to the wealthy people, but today, every citizen has now embraced banking, which has propelled the economy (Daniels, 2010). Today, even farmers in the rural areas are able to do business right from the farm because mobile banking is a reality.
Cause and reaction to the influence
Around the year 2000, foreign investors realized an opportunity in Kenya and exploited it. With the primary goal of boosting communication, foreigners did not have an idea that technology would change the banking industry in Kenya, where the 1st case of mobile money transfer was initiated.
The local population has embraced this concept because it has positively impacted services and businesses, which are now booming. Nonetheless, the emergence of mobile banking has seen a sharp increase in fraud with Kenya currently being listed as countries with high cases for fraud.
Although globalization has positively impacted non-western countries especially through boosting economy and sensitization of the aids pandemic, which has led to subsequent seen a reduction in the rates of HIV & Aids infection and death, it has led to dilution of culture with many people adopting the western ways. Despite this, globalization is not expected to end soon and so there should be conscious efforts by the parties concerned to preserve their culture.