Effects Of Overpopulation On The Academic Performance Of Students In Government Secondary Schools

Effects Of Overpopulation On The Academic Performance Of Students In Government Secondary Schools

Title page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contents v-vii
Abstract viii
Chapter one
Background of the study1-2
Statement of the problem2-3
Purpose of the study
Research questions
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Chapter two
Theory of overpopulation 6-7
The concept of overpopulation 7-10
The concept of academic performance 10-12
The causes of overpopulation 12-16
Incidence of overpopulation in government secondary schools 16-19
The problems of overpopulation of students in government secondary 19-22
The impact of overpopulation of students in government
secondary schools on their academic performance 22-25
Summary of the related literature 26
Chapter three
Research design 27
Area of the study 27-28
Population of the study 28-29
Sample and sampling technique 29
Instruments for data collection 29-30
Validation of the instrument 30
Reliability of the instrument 30-31
Administration of instrument 31
Method of data analysis 31
Chapter four
Analysis of research question one 32-34
Analysis of research question two 34-35
Analysis of research question three 35-36
Analysis of research question four 36-37
Summary of findings 38
Chapter five
Discussion of findings 39-42
Conclusion 43-44
Recommendation 44
Educational implication of the study 44-45
Limitation of the study 45
Suggestion for further studies 45-46
Summary of study 46-47
References 48
Appendix 49-54


The study aimed at establishing the effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of government secondary schools. It is designed to identify the factors that contribute to the increase in students’ population, find out the students-teacher ratio in government secondary schools and also the impact of the increase on the academic performance of students. A descriptive survey design was used, while the population of the study consists of government owned secondary schools in Owerri educational zone. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the four (4) schools out of the nine (9) schools in the zone. The four secondary schools selected have a total population of five thousand five hundred and thirty (5530) students and eighty (80) teachers. The sample size consists of five hundred and fifty four (554) students and eight (8) teachers. Data were represented in a tabular form. A closed format questionnaire with four points likert rating scale was used for data collection, and the mean score were used in analyzing the responses of the research questions. As a result of this research work it was found out that the students-teacher ratio in government secondary schools is between 55-60 students per teacher. Some recommendations were made, which include that the ministry of education should give quota on the students enrolment in government secondary schools in order to reduce the number of students per teacher, and infrastructural facilities should be provided to the schools in rural areas in order to avoid students’ migration to the urban areas.



Background of the Study

According to the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools while that of Imo state showed a total number of two hundred and five (205). Owerri Municipal council had about seven (7) secondary schools, with a population of Seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students. This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention.

The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools, with Imo state having three hundred and twelve (312) secondary schools and Owerri Municipal 9 government secondary schools.

According to the statistics department, Secondary Education Management Board (SEMB), there has been a rapid increase in the population of students in Owerri Education zone from seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students to ten thousand, five hundred and seventy (10570) students. There is a constant increase in the population of secondary schools which runs contrary to the new encyclopedia Britannica, volume (A) assertion. Unlike population of insects, population rarely has been subject to explosive or collapsing numbers.

Overpopulation refers to a situation where the total number of people in an area exceeds the available resources. Overpopulation can also be defined as deficiency in resources development in relation to the available people Osuji (2008). This means existing resources can not march the immediate population number.

Evidence has shown that the population of students in urban schools is on the increase. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas.

Under population of secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact in the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results.

This situation of over population could be speculated to be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime etcetera. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate instructional materials, production of poor or a few quality text books, congested classrooms and attendant education in characters (dropout as a product of the so called schools).

Statement of the Problem

Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in population of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in government secondary schools in Owerri educational zone and what could be done to remedy the situation.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the impact of overpopulation on academic performance of government secondary students specifically, the study intends to:

Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large.

For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school.

To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher-students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance.

To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them.

To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning.

The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future students.

Research Questions

For the purpose of carrying out this research, the researchers pose the following questions:

Scope of the Study

This research work is restricted to only government secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council. The secondary schools are:

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