The Impact Of Manpower Training And Development On Organizational Performance
The need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training is not less apparent. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training and development. Thus, this study attempts to explore the roles, functions and performance of effective personnel management in a developed organization. Human resources training and development helps to ensure that staff (manpower) possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their job effectively for organization to grow. The findings and suggestions made are therefore intended to aid in the impact of manpower training and development on organization performance Particularly in Unilever Nigeria Plc. This research work is divided into five chapters; chapter one deals with the general introduction of topic, chapter two deals with review of relevant literatures. Chapter three and four also focus of the research methodology, presentation and analysis of data while chapter five deals with the summary of findings, conclusion, recommendation, limitation of the study and suggestion for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem 3
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Limitation of the Study 7
1.8 Historical Background of Unilever Nigeria Plc
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review 14
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Conceptual Framework 15
2.3 Objectives of Manpower Training and Development 17
2.4.1 Training 17
2.4.2 Development 19
2.4.3 Manpower Training and Development Versus 20
2.5 Methods of Manpower Training and Development 21
2.6 Types of Training And Manpower Development
2.7 The Need for Manpower Training and Development 23
2.8 Problems Training and Development Can
Solve in an Organization 24
2.9 Process of Training And Development 25
2.10 Training, Performance and Production 27
2.11 Approaches to Training 27
2.12 Summary 28
3.0 Research Methodology 30
3.1 Introduction 30
3.2 Re-Statement of Research Questions
and Hypothesis 30
33 Research Design 31
3.4 Characteristics of the Research Population 32
3.5 Sampling Size and Sampling Procedures 32
3.6 Selection of Data/Data Collection Method 33
3.7 Research Instruments 33
3.8 Statistical Analysis and Procedure 34
3.9 Limitation of Methodology 39
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 36
4.1 Introduction 36
4.2 Administration of Questionnaires 36
4.3 Respondents Characteristics and Classifications 36
4.4 Presentation and Analysis of Data
(Research Questions) 40
4.5 Test of Hypotheses 48
4.6 Discussion of Findings 56
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 57
5.1 Summary 57
5.2 Conclusion 58
5.3 Recommendation 59
5.4 Limitations of Study 60
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 60
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are various factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include; Capital, equipment, land, manpower etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. For example, money may be scarce and difficult to come but once you get it, you must have good people around to manage it otherwise a huge amount can disappear into thin air and this can spell down for the organization in question. In the same vein, land may be expensive and the location may be fraught with problems. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives. This implies that the employees within an organization, in order to perform their duties and make meaningful contribution to the attainment of such organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge.
Manpower training is therefore aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of any organization, it therefore, becomes paramount to develop the employee.
Manpower Development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity.
Manpower training and development constitute one of the major cardinal areas of personnel management which no organization can afford to toy with. It takes a well trained workforce to have high quality products, all things being equal. Of all the factors of production, man seems to be only factor that cannot be used in its crude form. It has to be refined through training to get the best out of it.
Therefore, any organization who undermines the prominent position which training occupies in the development of a virile workforce may jeopardize its chances of surviving in the keenly competitive environment.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of manpower training and development on organization performance of Unilever Pic. The specific objective of the study is to:
i. To provide for the future manpower needs of the organization quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of skills, numbers and ages.
ii. Estimation of the cost of human resources
iii. Find out whether training and development scheme have positive impact on the performance and productivity of works.
iv. Proffer solutions to the identified problems
v. To minimize imbalances due to non-availability of human resources of the right kind, right number in the right time and right place.
1.3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival with adequate supply of materials and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals.
However, most organization plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are received with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which without it, the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes. The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing function do so with lack of seriousness, all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this lackadaisical attitude of management towards manpower training and development had resulted to a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new, dispensation in the organization.
It has also been discovered that the employees lacks the right attitude to training because they considered it as hectic and stressful. And this problem could also pose a threat to labour turnover.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of manpower training and development on organisation performance, however the researcher used Unilever Nigeria. Plc as a reference.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study shall address itself to the following research questions.
i. Does Manpower Training and Development has an effect on organizational performance?
ii. Does Manpower Training and Development reduce labour and organizational growth?
iii. Is there any relationship between manpower Development and organizational growth.
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The testable hypothesis of this research study shall be:
H0: Manpower Training and Development has no significant relation with organizational performance.
H1: Manpower Training and Development has a significant relationship with organizational performances.
H0: Effective Manpower Training and Development does not reduce labour turnover.
H1: Effective manpower Training and Development reduce labour turnover.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of Unilever Plc, there are some doubts as to the quality of products rendered by the company to its customers in particular. It is in light of this that the researcher intend to look into the factors militating against the industry in achieving its set objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of Unilever Nig Plc and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs.
The importance of this study also behooves the company to train and develop its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization.
It will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals. For the management of Unilever Nigeria Plc, this study will serve as a benefit to the quality of ‘work, life of the employees will also reciprocate with increase performances on the job.
This study will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the. formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to Unilever Nig Plc in Lagos. Due to envisage constraint, the use of questionnaire is adopted using sizeable population of employees from the firm under study. The population size may not be true representation of employees; hence the study was also limited to the unwillingness of management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality. The study was also limited to employees of the firm. Some were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain question for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.
These difficulties notwithstanding, the researcher made concrete efforts to ensure that the project was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.
1.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC
Unilever Nigeria Plc, was incorporated as Lever Brothers (West African) Ltd on 11th April 1923 by Lord Leverhulme, but the company’s antecedents have to be traced back to his existing trading interests in Nigeria and West Africa generally.
Unilever Nigeria Plc started as a soap manufacturing Company, and it today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organizations of Nigeria.
After series of mergers/acquisitions, the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods, non-soapy
detergents and personal care products. The company changed its name to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 2001.
Unilever is a public liability company quoted on the Nigeria Stock Exchange since 1973 with Nigerians currently having 49% of equity holdings.
The long term success of this business stems from the strong relationship with the consumers based on the deep roots in the local cultures and markets, creating product that help them (consumers) feel and look good and get the total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity. In order to sustain this success, Unilever Nigeria Plc endeavor to maintain the highest standards of corporate behavior towards their employees, consumers, customers, communities and operating environment.
Over the years, Unilever Nigeria Plc has been a socially responsible and responsive organization that takes strategic actions for the improvement of the communities and environment in which it operates. The company has made provision for assistance in fields of health, education or children welfare and portable water of hygiene as part of its social responsibility programme in the Nigeria communities.
Unilever considers itself the second largest consumer goods firm in the world and products numerous brands name such as foods, cleaning products and personal care items.
About 52% of revenues are generated in the food sector. The brands include and promise margarines, lipton tea, Lawry’s seasoning, Breyers ice-cream and frozen foods.
2. PERSONAL CARE ITEMS
These include cares and-Dove soap, pears and skin care products, sure deodorants, suave and salon selective hair care items, close up, calvin klein, Elizabeth Taylor Prestige fragrance and Vaseline.
3. CLEANING PRODUCTS
This is the third major sector of Unilever and is responsible for about 22 percent of turnover. Brands include all laundry detergent, final touch fabric, softeners, sunlight dish detergent.
Although Unilever’s growth until the mid 1940’s was as a result of expanded products lines and plant capacities. Its greatest achievements between 1945 and 1965 were its adaptation to new market and technology.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
MANPOWER: This is refer to as the human resource of a business concern. In other words, it is known as the performances in an organizational work settings. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company.
TRAINING: Cole, (2002) defines training as a learning activity directed towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task. The focus of training is the job or task.
Training is further: By Bankole Akanji (2003) described training as a short term systematic process through which an employee acquires technical knowledge, skill & attitude required to perform a specific task or job adequately.
DEVELOPMENT: This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.
Bamkole Akanji (2003) described development as a developmental process through which the managerial personnel develop the already acquired knowledge and potential for self effectiveness in their future complex assignments.
ORGANIZATION: Monday, (1990) defined organization as “two or more people working together in a co-coordinated manner to achieve group result”.
Organization is further defined in Encyclopedia Britanica (1986) as an arrangement of individuals or groups into a coherent whole, with complex of function interrelationship and a system of overall administration.
PERFORMANCE: these are the measurable outcomes accomplishment valued by the work done.
MANPOWER PLANNING: Is the estimation of quantity & quality of employees on organization or a Nation requires at a particular time in the future.
Olusola Aina, (1992:68) defined manpower planning as a possible for determining and assuring that an organization will have, adequate number of skilled and experienced person available at the right time and which provides job satisfaction to the workers involved.
LABOUR: this is defined as both mental and physical effect towards production.
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT: Can be described as the systematic process which an organization has to go through to ensure that is has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future needs.
ORGANIZATON STRUCTURE: Loosely defined, it refers to the network of relationship between individuals who are linked in a cooperative endeavour set-up, to achieve some set objective.
EVALUATION: It is the systematic collection and assessment of information for deciding how best to utilize available training resources in order to achieve organizational goals.
According to Hamblim (1970) evaluation is any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of training programme and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information.
ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS: Mondy et al (1990) defined it as the degree to which an organization produce the intended or desired result.