Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The human body is delicate and vulnerable to multiple risks and diseases. The stomach is one of the areas faced with many complications. One of the conditions that affect the colon and small intestines is the inflammatory bowel disease (abbreviated IBD) (Baumgart & Thomas 2012). Inflammatory bowel disease appears in two different forms (a) Crohn’s disease and (b) ulcerative colitis (Baumgart & Thomas 2012). This disorder is considered to be an autoimmune in which some of the elements in the intestines are attacked.
Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis
The most common forms of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; the two have features that appear comparable; such similarities are quite noticeable at the early stages (Mahadeva et al. 2002). An individual suffering from this disorder will have symptoms such as stubborn diarrhea, the stool contains mucosanguineous, severe and regular abdomen pain, signs of anemia and anorexia (Broome & Annika 2006). In addition, the individual could appear emaciated. The liver may change color, and uveitis among other minor symptoms are noticeable. Vomiting is also common.
Doctors and clinicians may carry out multiple tests to determine if a patient is suffering IBD. In most cases, stool tests, blood tests, endoscopic examination, Tissue tests, and X-rays should be conducted in order determine whether a patient is suffering IBD (Shepherd 2002).
One of the most important processes is endoscopic examination, which makes assessment of the colon. The procedure uses a thin camera, which magnifies the image of the colon where it is projected on a big screen to enable the clinicians diagnose IBD (Shepherd 2002). The most common forms of endoscopy include (a) sigmoidoscopy, and (b) colonoscopy (Bartel et al. 2008). After an examination, small particles are taken as samples for further examination in the laboratory. Secondly, capsule endoscopy is also another test conducted to evaluate the small intestines (Mahadeva et al. 2002). A patient is made to swallow a pill-sized devise, which takes picture of the intestines and provide more details that could have been missed by other methods (Abraham & Cho 2009). Another more reliable method to carry out this procedure is radiology test, which uses non-invasive imaging techniques to have a close observation of the small intestines (Abraham & Cho 2009). According to Baumgart & Carding (2007), this is one of the methods that has proved effective in diagnosis of Crohn’s disorder. Radiotherapy is conducted differently in children. More intense amounts of radiation is used to have a more detailed report.
One of the best and effective ways to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease is using therapy (Baumgart & Carding 2007). Therapy is a reliable treatment technique because it allows a patient to have a restored quality of life. The IBD therapy is also good methods because it eradicates the symptoms completely and even prevent flare-ups (Xavier & Podolsky 2007).
There are specialized clinicians, who can perform this procedure efficiently and restore quality of life as well as eliminate the symptoms completely, which are considered the best options in treatment of IBD. Another reliable way to treat IBD is using medication, which is quite effective in controlling pronounced signs and allow the body to heal. In addition, surgery has also been known to be an effective method, especially in those cases where medication has not produced the desired outcome. Surgery is considered a necessity when there is serious complication of the colon and small intestines and also when medication proves non-effective.
Medication management of IBD requires specific drug type and proper timing to maximize effectiveness of the drugs. The most common forms of drugs known to effectively treat both Crohon’s disease and ulcerative colitis include azathioprine, methnotrexate, mesalamine and infliximab among others (Mahadeva et al. 2002). Infliximab help manage or stop tumour, corticosteroids help to reduce inflammation, while mesaline help to prevent relapse of Crohn’s disorder (Feller et al. 2010). The use of conventional and traditional therapy has been effective in treatment of IBD over time. For ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease aminosalicylates and corticosteroids are the most common agents that can be administered. Nonetheless, there is a tendency to mistake where clinicians tend to overprescribe mesalamine for Crohn’s Disease (Feller et al. 2010). Cases of inappropriately using steroids have also been document. Sepsis should be administered in recommended proportion and in timely manner.
Nursing a patient with IBD is an essential role and should be conducted. The role of a specialized nurse for patient with IBD cannot be ignored. Nursing is crucial because it helps a patient to be more informed, receive the right education, and the necessary support regarding the illness. Nursing is also considered critical because it will help support a patient to deal with the situation. Nursing involves constant monitoring of the progress, which requires a patient to put under care. The nurse will from time to time conduct tests, scans and x-rays so that the progress can be determined (Abitbol et al. 2002).
Plan and Interventions
Nursing care plan for IBD require monitoring and assessing risks for impaired tissue, abdominal pain, risk for infection, joint pain, and other likely complications (Baumgart & Carding 2007). There is a need to have intervention strategies so that the health of the patient can be restored. Intervention involves constant monitoring of the symptoms. Psychological intervention is considered to be an effective treatment for adult patients. The patient is put under therapy care.