A Retrospective Cohort Study on Covid 19
A retrospective cohort study is a type of research method in which the researcher examines records of past events. In this case, the retrospective cohort study examines records of patients who tested positive with COVID-19 at the Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust (ICHNT). The study specifies some characteristics which an individual had to meet to be considered a part of the group under study (cohort).
The Elixhauser Comorbidity Score refers to a scale which is used to classify comorbidities using the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes. It is efficient because the ICD diagnosis codes are widely used in clinical and administrative data. It is also preferable since each comorbidity type is dichotomous, taking an entry as either present or absent.
Perez-Guzman, et al., (2020) conclude that patients from black, asian, and other minority ethnic groups (BAME) had a higher risk of death from COVID-19 than white patients. Specifically, black patients with COVID-19 showed a higher risk of death than all other ethnicities.
During sampling, the study did not select equal proportions of each demographic variable. Therefore, it took the disparities into account in the models. The study used unadjusted logistic regression models which gave the odds of dying without considering the discrepancies of the variables, and then used adjusted models which took into consideration the higher proportion of minority groups in London than in the rest of the country in terms of age and other factors. This made its conclusions applicable in any demographic.
The study summarizes model 4 in table 2 which is adjusted for age, among other factors.
Although prevalence of diabetes and kidney disease increases with age, these two illnesses adversely impact the severity of COVID-19 patient of any age. However, this may be overlooked through the assumption that age is the basic determinant for the mortality of COVID-19 patients, since the two diseases are prevalent among older people. The study uses an age-adjusted regression model in which only diabetes and chronic kidney disease are statistically significant.
The analyses which look into the mortalities of COVID-19 patients by their ethnicities concludes that people of colour have higher mortality when they are infected with COVID-19 as compared to white people. Although the white population is generally older and has more cases of pre-existing comorbidities, they have about the same level of disease severity at presentation. This means that black people are more severely affected by COVID-19.
The concluding claim that certain biological differences between the races may be the cause of the disparity in the severity of the disease to people who descend from different parts of the world is based on the fact that the study was conducted in the multi-ethnic society of London. This means that the sample contained information on patients from all social and economic classes in the city. However, the study proved a variation in severity in different ethnicities. This claim is also strengthened by the existence of a genetic mutation which makes some people immune to the HIV virus. As such, there may be a similar biological difference between the races which makes some ethnicities more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others.
This paper gives a special perspective and makes two important findings on the severity of Sars-Cov-2. First, the paper emphasizes about the most significant comorbidities which increase the severity of COVID-19. Secondly, in the claim above, the paper points the search for solution to the COVID-19 pandemic towards genetic solutions. The exploration of this alternative has a high potential to come up with an effective solution to the pandemic