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The Role Of Traditional Institution And Student Academic Performance In Senior Public Secondary School

The Role Of Traditional Institution And Student Academic Performance In Senior Public Secondary School

Chapter One

Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Traditional institutions have been identified by Yadava and Gautam (1980) to include: traditional rulers, kingroups, farmers’ forum, age groups, women clubs, sacred institution (church, temple, mosque, etc) obtainable in the rural societies. However, in this paper, the phrase ‘traditional institutions’ will be limited to traditional rulers, clan heads, village heads and their council of elders as organized and recognized in all Nigerian communities. Orji, & Olali (2010) cited in Nweke (2012) defined traditional institutions as “the indigenous political arrangements whereby leaders with proven track records are appointed and installed in line with the provisions of their native laws and customs-they are the custodians of their people’s norms, cultures and practices” (p.206). To Omole (2016), traditional institutions referred to as: those social, economic or political organizations/bodies which derive their power, legitimacy, influence and authority from the traditions of a particular people-In the precolonial Africa, the set of people who control, direct and superintend over traditional institutions are called traditional rulers and their subordinates like provincial chiefs, princes, ward heads, etc. Indeed, the power, authority and legitimacy of traditional rulers were derived from traditions. In Nigeria, the heads of traditional institutions are called different names according to the language and culture of a particular community. Most communities in the Northern Nigeria which is predominantly made up of Hausa/Fulani people addressed heads of traditional institutions as ‘Emirs’ or ‘Sultan’ and their councils, depending on the ranking of the traditional rulers. In western Nigeria, (the Yorubas), there are popularly known as the ‘Obas’. While the traditional rulers among the ‘Igbos’ who occupy the South-eastern Nigeria are called the ‘Igwes’ or ‘Eze’. Most states in the south-south region do not have a generally known name for their traditional rulers, each state or communities have a particular name they call theirs. Popular among them are: Obong of Calabar, Jaja of Opopo, etc. However, there exists clan heads and paramount rulers in these areas certificated by the government to maintain peaceful co-existence among the people. The traditional institution elicit greater confidence and legitimacy in the eyes of the ordinary Nigerians than the institution of the modern state due to it closeness to the people. Government comes and goes but the traditional institution has remained an integral framework of the people’s history and the bedrock of the traditional society. The government and non-governmental agencies must work harmoniously with traditional institutions to bring about meaningful development because these institutions have remained the pulse of the people and an enduring part of their cultural heritage. It is important to note that no society progresses without well defined cultural norms and values which regulate the activities of its people (Thewill, 2016). Traditional institutions are deeply rooted and unique to members of a particular community. They have the capacity to influence and control the behaviour of the people. They have the powers to coordinate information regarding any issue from their various clan heads or emirs and this information were processed to avail peaceful coexistence and mutual love for one another in their respective domains (Thewill, 2016)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The roles and importance of local authority institutions can never be over emphasis seeing to the fact that, over the it has play a strategic and centre role conflict resolution of the students among secondary schools students in Nigeria, and there are appointed and installed in line with the provisions of their native laws and customs (Orji, & Olali, 2010). The essence of these institutions is but not limited to preserve the customs and traditions of the people and to manage conflicts arising among or between schools of the community by the instrumentality of laws and customs of the people especially that which involve students and inter schools. Traditional institutions in Nigeria employ different conflict management formations to solve the issues with students.
1.3 Objectives of the study
To examine the relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on setting conflict and dispute.
To examine the relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on providing institutional safety
To examine the significant relationship between challenges of traditional institution and student’s academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
What is the relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on setting conflict and dispute?
What is the relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on providing institutional safety?
What is the significant relationship between challenges of traditional institution and student’s academic performance?
1.5 Hypotheses
There is no relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on setting conflict and dispute.
There is no relationship between roles of traditional institution bases and students academic performance based on providing institutional safety
There is no significant relationship between challenges of traditional institution and student’s academic performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the teachers, researchers, Ministry of Education, students, and educational policy makers. The findings would provide useful information to the teachers on the appropriate teaching strategies to be adopted that will bring about effective learning outcomes among students in social studies.
This study would also be significant in the sense that its finding would serve as reference materials for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study in other Local Government Areas or education zone.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study was delimited to the role of traditional institution and student academic performance in senior public secondary school.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the students through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.
Finally, there was the problem of convincing the students on the primary objectives of the questionnaire so as to give the true and required information. However, the intervention of the class teachers in the schools who took time to clear the air and convince his students helped the investigator to administer the instrument successfully.



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