For a long time, the wave theory of light prevailed in physics, and exclusively corpuscular properties were attributed to microscopic particles of matter, atoms, for example. But from these positions it was not possible to create a coherent and consistent theory of the structure of the atom. Rutherford's experiments showed the "openwork" structure of the atom, where the bulk is contained in the nucleus with a diameter of the order of, and electrons fill the rest of the volume. But it was proved that such a system cannot be stable without the movement of electrons. This fact and many others led to the understanding that microscopic particles cannot be approached with the equations of classical mechanics.
The discovery of the photoelectric effect also did not fit into the framework of classical physics. This led to the creation of quantum mechanics, in which special properties are attributed to microparticles that are impossible from the point of view of classical physics.
The purpose of this work will be to consider the concept of wave-particle dualism for microparticles and radiation, consider the basic formulas and laws that describe these phenomena and analyze how the dualism of the properties of microparticles and radiation is used in science, technology, how widespread are devices and devices that use these properties of matter
Corpuscular - wave dualism, as well as experiments on the diffraction of electrons and protons have shown that microparticles have wave properties and are not material particles in the classical concept of the word. This led to the further development of quantum mechanics, which introduced the concepts of delocalization and wave function for microparticles. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle showed the impossibility of simultaneously finding two parameters for microparticles. An electron, like a photon, cannot have a certain coordinate and momentum at the same time:
Corpuscular - wave dualism was the basis on which almost all modern physics, quantum mechanics, physics of microparticles, astronomy were built. On the basis of this principle, modern scientific and household appliances, instruments work, as an example, a variety of photocells that can be found both in scientific equipment and in everyday life. The study of matter would not have been possible without an electron microscope and electron diffraction methods.
But, of course, its main value is not in these numerous applied applications of wave-particle duality. The exceptional role of this theory is determined by the fact that it acts as the foundation of all natural science. The level of this science today determines the level of understanding of the entire world around us, determines the level of intellectual maturity of mankind. Without this theory and the conclusions built on it, it is impossible to understand the past of our world, it is impossible to understand the basic processes going on in it. It is impossible to predict the future.
The history of physics teaches that each new successful step on the way to understanding the fundamental laws of nature inevitably led to huge (and almost always quite unexpected) changes in technology and radically affected the life of all mankind. Suffice it to recall the fruits that have brought people such abstract theories as electrodynamics, the theory of relativity. Therefore, quantum electronics based on wave-particle duality will bring many changes to our world.